Our new research reveals the many ways immigrants are helping revive the Great Lakes region.
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Immigrants and the economy in:


Today, Mississippi is home to more than 63,000 new Americans. While foreign-born residents only account for 2.1 percent of the state’s total population, such immigrants serve as everything from entrepreneurs to sewing machine operators, making them critical contributors to Mississippi’s economic success overall.

  • Immigrant Residents

  • Immigrant Share of Population

  • Immigrant Taxes Paid (2014)

  • Immigrant Spending Power (2014)

  • Immigrant Entrepreneurs

  • Employees at Immigrant-Owned Firms



In the United States, immigrants are more likely to be working-age than their U.S.-born counterparts. This allows them to contribute to the U.S. economy and to entitlement programs as they work and pay taxes. As Mississippi's slow population growth may potentially deprive businesses of customers and employers of a workforce they can depend on as more baby boomers retire, immigrants are likely to help to address some of these demographic challenges.

Age Group Foreign-Born Population Share Native-Born Population Share
0-24 18.3% 35.3%
25-64 71.6% 50.3%
65+ 10.1% 14.4%


In 2010, roughly one in 10 American workers with jobs at private firms were employed at immigrant-founded companies. Such businesses also generated more than $775 billion in annual business revenue that year. In Mississippi like the country as a whole, immigrants are currently punching above their weight class as entrepreneurs. Foreign-born workers currently make up 5.4 percent of all entrepreneurs in the state, despite being just 2.1 percent of Mississippi’s population.

People employed by immigrant-owned firms 17,605
Immigrant entrepreneurs 5,801
Business income of immigrant-owned firms $81.6M

Taxes & Spending Power

Nationally, immigrants earned $1.3 trillion in 2014 and contributed more than $104 billion in state and local taxes, as well as almost $224 billion in federal taxes. This left them with nearly $927 billion in spending power. Immigrants in Mississippi play an important role contributing to the state’s economy, both as consumers and taxpayers.

Immigrant Household Income $1.3B
Taxes Paid $357.7M
State & Local Taxes $112.3M
Federal Taxes $245.4M
Total Spending Power $983.0M


Nationally, immigrants are 17.2 percent more likely to hold an advanced degree than the native-born. They are also more likely to have less than a high school education. Uniquely, this allows them to fill critical shortages at both ends of the skill spectrum, from high-tech fields to agriculture, hospitality, and service industries. This holds true in Mississippi, where immigrants play a particularly large role as postsecondary teachers, sewing machine operators, and carpenters.

Workforce Education Foreign-Born Population Native-Born Population
Less Than High School 31.7% 16.9%
High School & Some College 41.9% 62.4%
Bachelor's Degree 12.8% 12.9%
Graduate Degree 13.6% 7.8%
Top Industries with Highest Share of Foreign-Born Workers
Private households  11.1%
Traveler accommodation  8.9%
Colleges, universities, and professional schools, including junior colleges 8.7%
Meatpacking and processing  8.4%
Other amusement, gambling, and recreation industries  6.9%
Top Occupations with Highest Share of Foreign-Born Workers
Postsecondary teachers 14.0%
Sewing machine operators 12.7%
Carpenters 12.0%
Gaming services workers 11.2%
Food service managers 10.5%

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math

Between 2014 and 2024, science, technology, engineering, and math—or “STEM”—fields are projected to play a key role in U.S. economic growth, adding almost 800,000 new jobs and growing 37.0 percent faster than the U.S. economy as a whole. Immigrants are already playing a huge part ensuring that Mississippi remains a leading innovator in industries like utilities and advanced manufacturing.

STEM workers who are immigrants 6.8%
STEM Master’s students who are foreign nationals 14.0%
STEM PhD students who are foreign nationals 42.7%


In the coming years, the American healthcare industry is projected to see rapid growth—adding more new positions from 2014 to 2024 than any other industry in our economy. In Mississippi, a state where more than one out of every 7 people is currently elderly, finding enough healthcare workers remains a challenge—and one that will likely worsen in the future.

Open healthcare jobs to unemployed healthcare workers 4:1
Doctors who were educated abroad 15.1%
Psychiatrists who were educated abroad 32.1%
Nurses who are foreign-born 2.0%
Health aides who are foreign-born 1.5%


Immigrant families have long played an important role helping to build housing wealth in the United States. In recent decades, the more than 40 million immigrants collectively in the country increased U.S. housing wealth by $3.7 trillion. Much of this was possible because immigrants moved into neighborhoods once in decline, helping to revitalize communities and make them more attractive to U.S.-born residents. In Mississippi, immigrants are actively strengthening the state’s housing market.

Immigrant homeowners 12,513
Share of recent homebuyers who were foreign-born 2.6%
Housing wealth held by immigrant households $2.0B
Amount paid by immigrant-led households in rent $9.5M

International Students

International students in the United States contributed more than $30.5 billion to the U.S. economy in the 2014-2015 school year and supported more than 370,000 jobs through their tuition payments and day-to-day spending. Research has found that increases in the number of international students at American universities boost innovation and patent creation. International students represent a small portion of all students in Mississippi, but they make a big impact.

Students at Mississippi colleges and universities who are international 1.9%
Economic contribution of international students $68.2M
Jobs supported by international students 738

Voting Power

In 2014, Mississippi was home to almost 22,000 foreign-born residents who were eligible to vote, including an estimated 10,000 foreign-born residents who had formally registered. Those numbers are unlikely to sway a presidential election in this relatively safe Republican state, where Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney won by roughly 148,000 votes in 2012. Still, it can make a difference in closer statewide contests and primaries.

Immigrants eligible to vote 21,535
Immigrants registered to vote 10,379
Immigrants eligible to vote in 2020 24,832
2012 presidential election margin of victory 147,797

Undocumented Immigrants

The United States is currently home to an estimated 11.4 million undocumented immigrants, the vast majority of whom have lived in the country for more than five years. The presence of so many undocumented immigrants for such a long time presents many legal and political challenges. But while politicians continue to debate what to do about illegal immigration without any resolution, millions of undocumented immigrants are actively working across the country, and collectively, these immigrants have a large impact on the U.S. economy. This is true in Mississippi, where undocumented immigrants contribute tens of millions of dollars in taxes each year.

Undocumented immigrants 22,939
Share of undocumented immigrants, working age 75.0%
Undocumented entrepreneurs 2,222
Undocumented Household Income $252.9M
Taxes Paid $29.0M
State & Local Taxes $12.4M
Federal Taxes $16.6M
Total Spending Power $224.0M

The Economic Impact of Refugees

Despite leaving extreme and dangerous situations in their home countries, refugees are often able to rebound and prosper as they become more integrated into American society. Nationwide, we find that refugees hold billions of dollars in spending power and pay more than $20 billion in tax contributions to federal, state, and local governments each year. At the state level, they contribute millions of added dollars to local economies, making them an important driver of growth and prosperity for communities around the country.

Key Stats
Number of Likely Refugees 3,806
State's Share of all Likely Refugees 0.2%
Share of Overall State Population, Refugee 0.1%
Taxes & Spending Power
Refugee Household Income $114.9M
Taxes Paid $28.2M
State & Local Taxes $9.7M
Federal Taxes $18.4M
Refugee Spending Power $86.7M

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