Our new research reveals the many ways immigrants are helping revive the Great Lakes region.
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The sustained growth experienced by Idaho in recent years means that today the state is home to more than 100,000 immigrants. These largely working-age immigrants have helped Idaho, a state with a consistently low unemployment rate, meet its workforce needs in recent years. New Americans in the state serve as everything from farm workers to surgeons, making them vital contributors to Idaho’s economic success.

  • Immigrant Residents

  • Immigrant Share of Population

  • Immigrant Taxes Paid (2014)

  • Immigrant Spending Power (2014)

  • Immigrant Entrepreneurs

  • Employees at Immigrant-Owned Firms



In the United States, immigrants are more likely to be working-age than their U.S.-born counterparts. This allows them to contribute to the U.S. economy and to entitlement programs as they work and pay taxes. This is equally true in Illinois, where immigrants are far more likely to be of working age than the U.S.-born population.

Age Group Foreign-Born Population Share Native-Born Population Share
0-24 20.3% 37.1%
25-64 70.5% 48.2%
65+ 9.3% 14.7%


In 2010, roughly one in 10 American workers with jobs at private firms were employed at immigrant-founded companies. Such businesses also generated more than $775 billion in annual business revenue that year. Idaho is currently home to more than 4,200 foreign-born entrepreneurs. Such business owners are creating real and meaningful economic opportunities to local, U.S.-born workers.

People employed by immigrant-owned firms 14,616
Immigrant entrepreneurs 4,221
Business income of immigrant-owned firms $84.7M

Taxes & Spending Power

Nationally, immigrants earned $1.3 trillion in 2014 and contributed more than $104 billion in state and local taxes, as well as almost $224 billion in federal taxes. This left them with nearly $927 billion in spending power. Immigrants in Idaho play an important role contributing to the state’s economy, both as consumers and taxpayers.

Immigrant Household Income $2.0B
Taxes Paid $460.7M
State & Local Taxes $154.0M
Federal Taxes $306.7M
Total Spending Power $1.5B


Nationally, immigrants are 17.2 percent more likely to hold an advanced degree than the native-born. They are also more likely to have less than a high school education. Uniquely, this allows them to fill critical shortages at both ends of the skill spectrum, from high-tech fields to agriculture, hospitality, and service industries. In Idaho, immigrants play a particularly large role in crop production, animal production, and dairy products.

Workforce Education Foreign-Born Population Native-Born Population
Less Than High School 42.3% 7.1%
High School & Some College 41.1% 66.9%
Bachelor's Degree 9.7% 17.7%
Graduate Degree 6.9% 8.3%
Top Industries with Highest Share of Foreign-Born Workers
Animal production 39.9%
Dairy products  39.7%
Crop production  31.3%
Groceries and related products  26.9%
Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty foods  23.3%
Top Occupations with Highest Share of Foreign-Born Workers
Graders and Sorters, agricultural products 66.8%
Miscellaneous agricultural workers, including animal breeders 49.2%
Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders 45.1%
Maids and Housekeeping cleaners 41.2%
Industrial truck and tractor operators 25.2%

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math

Between 2014 and 2024, science, technology, engineering, and math—or “STEM”—fields are projected to play a key role in U.S. economic growth, adding almost 800,000 new jobs and growing 37.0 percent faster than the U.S. economy as a whole. Immigrants are already playing a huge part ensuring that Idaho remains a leading innovator in industries like nuclear energy and robotics.

STEM workers who are immigrants 6.6%
STEM Master’s students who are foreign nationals 10.9%
STEM PhD students who are foreign nationals 36.7%


In the coming years, the American healthcare industry is projected to see rapid growth—adding more new positions from 2014 to 2024 than any other industry in our economy. In Idaho, a state where more than one out of every 7 people is currently elderly, finding enough healthcare workers remains a challenge—and one that will likely worsen in the future.

Open healthcare jobs to unemployed healthcare workers 7:1
Doctors who were educated abroad 9.0%
Psychiatrists who were educated abroad 9.7%
Nurses who are foreign-born 3.1%
Health aides who are foreign-born 6.6%


In 2014, the agriculture sector contributed almost $4.2 billion to the state’s economy, placing the state among the top 20 in the country in terms of the size of that contribution. It also directly employed more than 35,300 Idahoans. Within that massive industry, potatoes—an iconic crop for this state—and dairy products played a significant role. These crops and products require significant manpower, with immigrants playing a prominent role in both industries.

Share of all agriculture workers, foreign-born 33.9%
Share of dairy workers who are foreign-born 39.7%


Immigrant families have long played an important role helping to build housing wealth in the United States. In recent decades, the more than 40 million immigrants collectively in the country increased U.S. housing wealth by $3.7 trillion. Much of this was possible because immigrants moved into neighborhoods once in decline, helping to revitalize communities and make them more attractive to U.S.-born residents. In Idaho, immigrants are actively strengthening the state’s housing market.

Immigrant homeowners 20,389
Share of recent homebuyers who were foreign-born 5.0%
Housing wealth held by immigrant households $3.1B
Amount paid by immigrant-led households in rent $14.8M

International Students

International students in the United States contributed more than $30.5 billion to the U.S. economy in the 2014-2015 school year and supported more than 370,000 jobs through their tuition payments and day-to-day spending. Research has found that increases in the number of international students at American universities boost innovation and patent creation. International students represent a small portion of all students in Idaho, but they make a big impact.

Students at Idaho colleges and universities who are international 6.5%
Economic contribution of international students $175.1M
Jobs supported by international students 1,745

Voting Power

In 2014, Idaho was home to almost 34,000 foreign-born residents who were eligible to vote, including an estimated 14,000 foreign-born residents who had formally registered. Those numbers are unlikely to sway a presidential election in this relatively safe Republican state, where Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney won by roughly 208,000 votes in 2012. Still, it can make a difference in closer statewide contests and primaries.

Immigrants eligible to vote 33,847
Immigrants registered to vote 13,899
Immigrants eligible to vote in 2020 38,706
2012 presidential election margin of victory 208,124

Undocumented Immigrants

The United States is currently home to an estimated 11.4 million undocumented immigrants, the vast majority of whom have lived in the country for more than five years. The presence of so many undocumented immigrants for such a long time presents many legal and political challenges. But while politicians continue to debate what to do about illegal immigration without any resolution, millions of undocumented immigrants are actively working across the country, and collectively, these immigrants have a large impact on the U.S. economy. This is true in Idaho, where undocumented immigrants contribute tens of millions of dollars in taxes each year.

Undocumented immigrants 41,788
Share of undocumented immigrants, working age 78.1%
Undocumented entrepreneurs 1,961
Undocumented Household Income $528.3M
Taxes Paid $55.0M
State & Local Taxes $21.2M
Federal Taxes $33.8M
Total Spending Power $473.2M

The Economic Impact of Refugees

Despite leaving extreme and dangerous situations in their home countries, refugees are often able to rebound and prosper as they become more integrated into American society. Nationwide, we find that refugees hold billions of dollars in spending power and pay more than $20 billion in tax contributions to federal, state, and local governments each year. At the state level, they contribute millions of added dollars to local economies, making them an important driver of growth and prosperity for communities around the country.

Key Stats
Number of Likely Refugees 5,392
State's Share of all Likely Refugees 0.2%
Share of Overall State Population, Refugee 0.3%
Taxes & Spending Power
Refugee Household Income $123.9M
Taxes Paid $29.7M
State & Local Taxes $9.6M
Federal Taxes $20.1M
Refugee Spending Power $94.2M

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