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  • Immigrant Residents

  • Immigrant Share of Population

  • Immigrant Taxes Paid

  • Immigrant Spending Power

  • Immigrant Entrepreneurs

  • Data Year



In the United States, immigrants are more likely to be working-age than their U.S.-born counterparts. This means they are more likely to be active in the labor force, allowing them to contribute to the economy not only as consumers but also as taxpayers, helping fund social services and programs like Medicare and Social Security.

Age Group Foreign-Born Population Share U.S.-Born Population Share
0-15 5.3% 21.4%
16-64 81.2% 62.3%
65+ 13.5% 16.3%


It is hard to overstate the importance of entrepreneurship since new businesses are the main driver of job growth in the United States. Immigrants play a particularly important role in this—founding businesses at far higher rates than the U.S. population overall. Today, millions of American workers are employed at immigrant-founded and immigrant-owned companies.

Immigrant entrepreneurs 80,683
Total business income of immigrant entrepreneurs $2.5B

Taxes & Spending Power

Immigrant households contribute hundreds of billions of dollars in federal income, state, and local taxes nationwide and hold a tremendous amount of spending power. This gives them significant economic clout, helping support local communities as consumers and taxpayers. Like all residents in the United States regardless of where they were born, immigrants make use of public services like education, healthcare, and public safety. Even with these costs, however, immigrants’ economic contributions far outweigh the extra cost of additional public services they incur.

Immigrant Household Income $47.1B
Taxes Paid $13.4B
State & Local Taxes $4.1B
Federal Taxes $9.4B
Total Spending Power $33.6B


The growth in the immigrant population has helped to strengthen America’s labor force. As baby boomers retire, younger immigrants are filling crucial gaps in the market. Nationally, immigrants are more likely to hold an advanced degree than the U.S.-born. They are also more likely to have less than a high school education. Uniquely, this allows them to fill critical shortages at both ends of the skill spectrum, from high-tech fields to agriculture, hospitality, and service industries.

Educational Attainment by Nativity, Age 25+
Workforce Education Foreign-Born Population U.S.-Born Population
Less Than High School 18.0% 8.2%
High School & Some College 37.7% 53.0%
Bachelor's Degree 24.2% 22.1%
Graduate Degree 20.1% 16.8%
Top Industries with Highest Share of Foreign-Born Workers
Taxi and limousine service 58.4%
Nail salons and other personal care services 56.8%
Private households 48.7%
Services to buildings and dwellings (except cleaning during construction and immediately after construction) 39.4%
Traveler accommodation 35.5%
Top Occupations with Highest Share of Foreign-Born Workers
Taxi drivers 61.3%
Painters and paperhangers 55.5%
Maids and housekeeping cleaners 47.4%
Construction laborers 47.0%
Chefs and head cooks 38.2%

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math

Jobs in fields related to science, technology, engineering, and math—or “STEM”—fields are some of the most productive jobs in the U.S. economy. These jobs are also expected to experience some of the highest growth rates in the next decade, second only to healthcare jobs. While immigrants already play a huge part in maintaining the United States’ role as a leading innovator, they will also be instrumental in helping high-tech industries meet their full potential as their needs for high-skilled STEM workers increase rapidly in the future.

STEM workers who are immigrants 22.8%


As millions of baby boomers become elderly, the U.S. healthcare system is facing unprecedented demand, adding jobs faster than any other segment of the economy. Many healthcare businesses and providers are struggling with finding enough workers, and in some rural areas, shortages are particularly acute. Immigrants have already been filling some of our most glaring healthcare needs. They are twice as likely as the U.S.-born to work as home health aides, but also twice as likely to be physicians and surgeons.

Nurses who are foreign-born 14.0%
Health aides who are foreign-born 18.7%


Immigrant families have long played an important role helping to build housing wealth in the United States. In recent decades, the more than 40 million immigrants collectively in the country increased U.S. housing wealth by $3.7 trillion. Much of this was possible because immigrants moved into neighborhoods once in decline, helping to revitalize communities and make them more attractive to U.S.-born residents.

Immigrant homeowners 251,118
Share of recent homebuyers who were foreign-born 15.7%
Housing wealth held by immigrant households $117.7B
Amount paid by immigrant-led households in rent $2.9B

International Students

International students in the United States contribute tens of billions of dollars to the U.S. economy every year and support a significant number of U.S. jobs through their tuition payments and day-to-day spending. Research has also found that increases in the number of international students at American universities boost innovation and patent creation.

Students at Virginia colleges and universities who are international students 20,274
Economic contribution of international students $717.5M
Jobs supported by international students 8,323

Voting Power

As more immigrants naturalize and become eligible to vote, they continue to gain power at the voting booth. The number of immigrant voters is only projected to rise in the next decade, but already in some states, foreign-born voters are already capable of deciding elections.

Immigrants eligible to vote 556,583

Undocumented Immigrants

The presence of the significant number of undocumented immigrants in the United States, the vast majority of whom have lived in the country for more than five years, poses many legal and political challenges. But while politicians continue to debate what to do about illegal immigration without any resolution, millions of undocumented immigrants are working across the country, collectively contributing billions to the U.S. economy.

Undocumented immigrants 265,830
Share of undocumented immigrants, working age 86.8%
Undocumented Entrepreneurs 20,155
Undocumented Household Income $5.7B
Taxes Paid $673.8M
State & Local Taxes $258.8M
Federal Taxes $414.9M
Total Spending Power $5.0B

The DACA-Eligible Population

DACA-eligible people contribute billions of dollars to the U.S. economy. Clawing back the protections afforded to DACA recipients will likely upset local economies, communities, and schools, hurting employers and businesses dependent these young immigrants as workers and customers.

Number of DACA Eligible Residents 21,848
Share of DACA Eligible Population in Labor Force that is Employed 92.7%
DACA-Eligible Household Income $505.9M
Taxes Paid $119.4M
State & Local Taxes $46.7M
Federal Taxes $72.7M
Total Spending Power $386.4M


Refugees living in the United States make tremendous contributions to our economy as earners, taxpayers, and consumers. Rather than a drain on communities, the high employment rate of refugees and their spirit of entrepreneurship instead sustains and strengthens their new hometowns.

Number of Likely Refugees 98,084
Share of Likely Refugees, Employed 96.9%
Number of Refugee Entrepreneurs 6,449
Total Business Income of Refugee Entrepreneurs $230.0M
Taxes & Spending Power
Refugee Household Income $4.4B
Taxes Paid $1.2B
State & Local Taxes $382.1M
Federal Taxes $852.1M
Total Spending Power $3.1B

Temporary Protected Status Holders

Recipients of Temporary Protected Status (TPS) have made enormous contributions to various industries and paid a significant amount in federal, state, and local taxes in the United States. Forcing them to leave the country not only risks putting these individuals in danger, but also threatens significant disruption to local economies.

Number of TPS Holders 31,878
Share of TPS Holders, Working Age 98.0%
Share of TPS Holders in Labor Force, Employed 95.7%
TPS Holders' Household Income $961.7M
Taxes Paid $212.4M
State & Local Taxes $88.2M
Federal Taxes $124.1M
Total Spending Power $749.4M

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New American Economy is a bipartisan research and advocacy organization fighting for smart federal, state, and local immigration policies that help grow our economy and create jobs for all Americans. More…