Today, California is home to more than 10.5 million immigrants, the single largest foreign-born population in the country. The number of immigrants in the state also continues to rise: From 2010 to 2015, the foreign-born population in California grew by more than 525,000 people. By 2014, 27 percent of California’s population was immigrant, by far the largest share of any state in the country.
In the United States, immigrants are more likely to be working-age than their U.S.-born counterparts. This allows them to contribute to the U.S. economy and to entitlement programs as they work and pay taxes. This is equally true in California, where immigrants are far more likely to be of working age than the U.S.-born population.
|Age Group||Foreign-Born Population Share||Native-Born Population Share|
In 2010, roughly one in 10 American workers with jobs at private firms were employed at immigrant-founded companies. Such businesses also generated more than $775 billion in annual business revenue that year. In California, like the country as a whole, immigrants are currently punching far above their weight class as entrepreneurs.
|People employed by immigrant-owned firms||1,460,099|
|Business income of immigrant-owned firms||$21.8B|
|Fortune 500 companies in California founded by immigrants or their children||47.1%|
Nationally, immigrants earned $1.4 trillion in 2016 and contributed more than $117 billion in state and local taxes, as well as almost $262 billion in federal taxes. This left them with more than $1.0 billion in spending power. Immigrants in California play an important role contributing to the state’s economy both as consumers and taxpayers.
|Immigrant Household Income||$367.6B|
|— State & Local Taxes||$30.0B|
|— Federal Taxes||$69.4B|
|Total Spending Power||$268.3B|
Nationally, immigrants are 9.2 percent more likely to hold an advanced degree than the native-born. They are also more likely to have less than a high school education. Uniquely, this allows them to fill critical shortages at both ends of the skill spectrum, from high-tech fields to agriculture, hospitality, and service industries. This holds true in California, where immigrants play a particularly large role in crop production, software development, and clothing manufacturing.
|Workforce Education||Foreign-Born Population||Native-Born Population|
|Less Than High School||34.3%||7.9%|
|High School & Some College||37.9%||56.1%|
|Cut and sew apparel||75.4%|
|Drycleaning and laundry services||68.9%|
|Sewing machine operators||91.1%|
|Miscellaneous agricultural workers||83.8%|
|Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers||83.2%|
|Maids and housekeeping cleaners||81.6%|
|Graders and sorters, agricultural products||79.7%|
Between 2014 and 2024, science, technology, engineering, and math—or “STEM”—fields are projected to play a key role in U.S. economic growth, adding almost 800,000 new jobs and growing 37.0 percent faster than the U.S. economy as a whole. Immigrants are already playing a huge part ensuring that California remains a leading innovator in industries like computer programming and biotechnology.
|STEM workers who are immigrants||39.3%|
|STEM Master's students who are foreign nationals||32.0%|
|STEM PhD students who are foreign nationals||23.9%|
In the coming years, the American healthcare industry is projected to see rapid growth—adding more new positions from 2014 to 2024 than any other industry in our economy. In California, a state where more than one out of every 8 people is currently elderly, finding enough healthcare workers remains a challenge—and one that will likely worsen in the future.
|Open healthcare jobs to unemployed healthcare workers||11:1|
|Doctors who were educated abroad||25.1%|
|Psychiatrists who were educated abroad||28.5%|
|Nurses who are foreign-born||37.3%|
|Health aides who are foreign-born||45.4%|
In 2014, the agriculture industry contributed $37.7B billion to California’s gross domestic product—the largest amount for any state in the country. Within that massive industry, fresh fruits and vegetables played a prominent role—California also exported more fresh fruits than any other state in the country. Fresh fruits and vegetables, unlike commodity crops such as corn, soybeans, and wheat, are almost always harvested by hand, making the state’s agriculture industry inherently reliant on immigrants. In 2014, almost seven out of every 10 agriculture workers in the state were born abroad.
|Share of fresh fruit and vegetable farms||52.2%|
|Share of misc. agriculture workers, foreign-born||82.2%|
|Share of all agriculture workers, foreign-born||69.2%|
|Amount agriculture directly contributes to California's economy||$37.7B|
Immigrant families have long played an important role helping to build housing wealth in the United States. In recent decades, the more than 40 million immigrants collectively in the country increased U.S. housing wealth by $3.7 trillion. Much of this was possible because immigrants moved into neighborhoods once in decline, helping to revitalize communities and make them more attractive to U.S.-born residents. In California, immigrants are actively strengthening the state’s housing market.
|Share of recent homebuyers who were foreign-born||30.6%|
|Housing wealth held by immigrant households||$1.3T|
|Amount paid by immigrant-led households in rent||$33.6B|
International students in the United States contributed more than $36.9 billion to the U.S. economy in the 2016-2017 school year and supported more than 450,000 jobs through their tuition payments and day-to-day spending. Research has also found that increases in the number of international students at American universities boost innovation and patent creation. International students represent a small portion of all students in California, but they make a big impact.
|Students at California colleges and universities who are international students||5.2%|
|Economic contribution of international students||$4.8B|
|Jobs supported by international students||54,838|
Nationwide, the power of immigrant voters is likely to continue to be a large factor in upcoming elections. The sheer size of the immigrant voting bloc here means it has a powerful impact on the way California votes in both national and state elections. In 2016, for instance, Hillary Clinton won California by roughly 4.3 million votes—a far smaller margin than the number of eligible foreign-born voters in the state.
|Immigrants eligible to vote||5,243,797|
|Immigrants registered to vote||2,959,853|
|Immigrants eligible to vote in 2020||5,481,400|
|2016 presidential election margin of victory||4,269,978|
The United States is currently home to an estimated 11.0 million undocumented immigrants, the vast majority of whom have lived in the country for more than five years. The presence of so many undocumented immigrants for such a long time presents many legal and political challenges. But while politicians continue to debate what to do about illegal immigration without any resolution, millions of undocumented immigrants are actively working across the country, and collectively, these immigrants have a large impact on the U.S. economy. This is true in California, where undocumented immigrants contribute billions of dollars in taxes each year.
|Share of undocumented immigrants, working age||91.8%|
|Undocumented Household Income||$46.8B|
|— State & Local Taxes||$1.9B|
|— Federal Taxes||$3.6B|
|Total Spending Power||$41.3B|
Our analysis of the 1.3 million DACA-eligible individuals nationwide found that DACA-eligible people were contribution billions of dollars to the U.S. economy. But DACA, of course, gains more resonance when we look beyond the national picture. Every state in the country is currently home to hundreds—or in many cases, thousands—of DACA-eligible people. Clawing back the protections afforded to this group upsets community networks and schools, and can hurt local employers and businesses dependent upon Dreamers to serve as workers and customers.
|Number of DACA Eligible Residents||316,205|
|Share of DACA Eligible Population in Labor Force that is Employed||89.4%|
|Number of DACA-Eligible Entrepreneurs||8,905|
|DACA-Eligible Household Income||$4.9B|
|— State & Local Taxes||$380.4M|
|— Federal Taxes||$367.7M|
|Total Spending Power||$4.2B|
Despite leaving extreme and dangerous situations in their home countries, refugees are often able to rebound and prosper as they become more integrated into American society. Nationwide, we find that refugees hold billions of dollars in spending power and pay more than $20 billion in tax contributions to federal, state, and local governments each year. At the state level, they contribute millions of added dollars to local economies, making them an important driver of growth and prosperity for communities around the country.
|Number of Likely Refugees||645,437|
|State's Share of all Likely Refugees||28.1%|
|Share of Overall State Population, Refugee||1.7%|
|Taxes & Spending Power|
|Refugee Household Income||$24.0B|
|— State & Local Taxes||$1.9B|
|— Federal Taxes||$4.8B|
|Refugee Spending Power||$17.2B|
New American Economy is a bipartisan research and advocacy organization fighting for smart federal, state, and local immigration policies that help grow our economy and create jobs for all Americans. More…
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