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Immigrants and the economy in:

New Mexico
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New Mexico is home to almost 200,000 individuals who were born in another country. The immigrants who are working in here contribute to a wide range of different industries in the state—many of which are growing and important parts of the local economy. Foreign-born residents make up almost half of New Mexico’s employees in the crop production industry. They also account for 40.1 percent of the state’s workers in animal production, contributing to New Mexico’s sizeable dairy and livestock industries, which together generated more than $1.9 billion in sales receipts in 2014.

  • Immigrant Residents

  • Immigrant Share of Population

  • Immigrant Taxes Paid

  • Immigrant Spending Power

  • Immigrant Entrepreneurs

  • Employees at Immigrant-Owned Firms



In the United States, immigrants are more likely to be working-age than their U.S.-born counterparts. This allows them to contribute to the U.S. economy and to entitlement programs as they work and pay taxes. This is equally true in New Mexico, where immigrants are far more likely to be of working age than the U.S.-born population.

Age Group Foreign-Born Population Share Native-Born Population Share
0-15 4.9% 22.2%
16-64 80.1% 61.3%
65+ 15.0% 16.5%


In 2010, roughly one in 10 American workers with jobs at private firms were employed at immigrant-founded companies. Such businesses also generated more than $775 billion in annual business revenue that year. In New Mexico like the country as a whole, immigrants are currently punching above their weight class as entrepreneurs, with more than 12,000 immigrants owning their own business in the state.

People employed by immigrant-owned firms 23,932
Immigrant entrepreneurs 12,194
Business income of immigrant-owned firms $243.3M

Taxes & Spending Power

Nationally, immigrants earned $1.4 trillion in 2016 and contributed more than $117 billion in state and local taxes, as well as almost $262 billion in federal taxes. This left them with more than $1.0 billion in spending power. Immigrants in New Mexico play an important role contributing to the state’s economy both as consumers and taxpayers.

Immigrant Household Income $4.3B
Taxes Paid $1.0B
State & Local Taxes $371.6M
Federal Taxes $641.3M
Total Spending Power $3.3B


Nationally, immigrants are 9.2 percent more likely to hold an advanced degree than the native-born. They are also more likely to have less than a high school education. Uniquely, this allows them to fill critical shortages at both ends of the skill spectrum, from high-tech fields to agriculture, hospitality, and service industries. This holds true in New Mexico, where immigrants play a particularly large role as carpenters, agricultural workers, and roofers.

Educational Attainment by Nativity, Age 25+
Workforce Education Foreign-Born Population Native-Born Population
Less Than High School 41.2% 10.6%
High School & Some College 38.2% 61.1%
Bachelor's Degree 9.2% 16.5%
Graduate Degree 11.3% 11.8%
Top Industries with Highest Share of Foreign-Born Workers
Construction 28.8%
Traveler accommodation 26.7%
Restaurants and other food services 17.3%
Colleges, universities, and professional schools 14.1%
Home health care services 14.0%
Top Occupations with Highest Share of Foreign-Born Workers
Cooks 29.9%
Janitors and building cleaners 22.8%
Personal care aides 15.3%
Retail salespersons 13.9%
Registered nurses 12.9%

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math

Between 2014 and 2024, science, technology, engineering, and math—or “STEM”—fields are projected to play a key role in U.S. economic growth, adding almost 800,000 new jobs and growing 37.0 percent faster than the U.S. economy as a whole. Immigrants are already playing a huge part ensuring that New Mexico remains a leading innovator in industries like aerospace and biotechnology.

STEM workers who are immigrants 12.0%
STEM Master's students who are foreign nationals 21.9%
STEM PhD students who are foreign nationals 38.3%


In the coming years, the American healthcare industry is projected to see rapid growth—adding more new positions from 2014 to 2024 than any other industry in our economy. In New Mexico, a state where nearly one out of every 7 people is currently elderly, finding enough healthcare workers remains a challenge—and one that will likely worsen in the future.

Open healthcare jobs to unemployed healthcare workers 13:1
Doctors who were educated abroad 21.5%
Psychiatrists who were educated abroad 21.5%
Nurses who are foreign-born 8.7%
Health aides who are foreign-born 11.6%


In 2014, the agriculture sector contributed $1.6 billion to the state’s economy. It also directly employed more than 15,700 New Mexicans. Although New Mexico produces a healthy amount of fresh fruits and vegetables, the state is primarily known for its dairy, another segment of agriculture that is increasingly reliant on foreign-born workers.

Share of fresh fruit and vegetable farms 23.3%
Share of all agriculture workers, foreign-born 37.4%
Share of animal production workers who are immigrants 41.7%


Immigrant families have long played an important role helping to build housing wealth in the United States. In recent decades, the more than 40 million immigrants collectively in the country increased U.S. housing wealth by $3.7 trillion. Much of this was possible because immigrants moved into neighborhoods once in decline, helping to revitalize communities and make them more attractive to U.S.-born residents. In New Mexico, immigrants are actively strengthening the state’s housing market.

Immigrant homeowners 55,674
Share of recent homebuyers who were foreign-born 14.2%
Housing wealth held by immigrant households $8.5B
Amount paid by immigrant-led households in rent $190.4M

International Students

International students in the United States contributed more than $36.9 billion to the U.S. economy in the 2016-2017 school year and supported more than 450,000 jobs through their tuition payments and day-to-day spending. Research has also found that increases in the number of international students at American universities boost innovation and patent creation. International students represent a small portion of all students in New Mexico, but they make a big impact.

Students at New Mexico colleges and universities who are international students 2.9%
Economic contribution of international students $96.1M
Jobs supported by international students 1,024

Voting Power

In 2016, New Mexico was home to roughly 77,000 foreign-born residents who were eligible to vote, including an estimated 41,000 foreign-born residents who had formally registered. Those numbers are particularly meaningful given the narrow margins of victory that have decided elections in the state in recent years. In 2016, Hillary Clinton won New Mexico by 65,000 votes.

Immigrants eligible to vote 77,268
Immigrants registered to vote 41,809
Immigrants eligible to vote in 2020 82,151
2016 presidential election margin of victory 65,567

Undocumented Immigrants

The United States is currently home to an estimated 11.0 million undocumented immigrants, the vast majority of whom have lived in the country for more than five years. The presence of so many undocumented immigrants for such a long time presents many legal and political challenges. But while politicians continue to debate what to do about illegal immigration without any resolution, millions of undocumented immigrants are actively working across the country, and collectively, these immigrants have a large impact on the U.S. economy. This is true in New Mexico, where undocumented immigrants contribute tens of millions of dollars in taxes each year.

Undocumented immigrants 50,544
Share of undocumented immigrants, working age 85.5%
Undocumented Household Income $601.4M
Taxes Paid $59.6M
State & Local Taxes $28.6M
Federal Taxes $31.0M
Total Spending Power $541.9M

The DACA-Eligible Population

Our analysis of the 1.3 million DACA-eligible individuals nationwide found that DACA-eligible people were contribution billions of dollars to the U.S. economy. But DACA, of course, gains more resonance when we look beyond the national picture. Every state in the country is currently home to hundreds—or in many cases, thousands—of DACA-eligible people. Clawing back the protections afforded to this group upsets community networks and schools, and can hurt local employers and businesses dependent upon Dreamers to serve as workers and customers.

Number of DACA Eligible Residents 10,896
Share of DACA Eligible Population in Labor Force that is Employed 89.5%
DACA-Eligible Household Income $117.5M
State & Local Taxes $9.8M
Federal Taxes $7.0M
Total Spending Power $100.7M

The Economic Impact of Refugees

Despite leaving extreme and dangerous situations in their home countries, refugees are often able to rebound and prosper as they become more integrated into American society. Nationwide, we find that refugees hold billions of dollars in spending power and pay more than $20 billion in tax contributions to federal, state, and local governments each year. At the state level, they contribute millions of added dollars to local economies, making them an important driver of growth and prosperity for communities around the country.

Key Stats
Number of Likely Refugees 4,170
State's Share of all Likely Refugees 0.2%
Share of Overall State Population, Refugee 0.2%
Taxes & Spending Power
Refugee Household Income $129.2M
Taxes Paid $36.8M
State & Local Taxes $9.2M
Federal Taxes $27.6M
Refugee Spending Power $92.5M

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About NAE

New American Economy is a bipartisan research and advocacy organization fighting for smart federal, state, and local immigration policies that help grow our economy and create jobs for all Americans. More…