United States of America
In the coming years, as our country’s 76.4 million baby boomers enter their elderly years, our country’s healthcare system will face unprecedented demand, adding jobs faster than any other segment of our economy. Yet, employers are already finding that there are not enough unemployed healthcare workers to fill vacant positions, and in some rural areas, shortages are particularly acute.
For several reasons, immigrants have been a particularly important stopgap filling some of our most glaring healthcare needs. Immigrants are twice as likely as native-born to fill lesser skilled home health aide positions, but also twice as likely to fill high-skilled positions as physicians and surgeons. And because immigrants tend to be more willing to move for a job than the native-born, and there are visa provisions to encourage this, immigrants also fill doctor vacancies in some of our rural communities with the greatest need. A smarter immigration system, however, could help fill far more gaps in our healthcare system, benefiting patients.
In all 50 states, there are already far more healthcare jobs open than there are workers available to fill them. Many policymakers worry that extreme demands on the healthcare system are coming at a time when many parts of the country still lack enough physicians and healthcare providers to offer adequate—or even basic—levels of care.
|4.4: Healthcare jobs advertised online for every 1 unemployed healthcare worker in 2013.|
|15: Number of occupations within the health sector where vacant jobs outnumber the unemployed workers by more than 10 to 1.|
|14: Number of those jobs that were front-line medical positions.|
|State||Number of Jobs|
Rural communities, in many ways, feel healthcare worker shortages most acutely. Rural counties, on average, have far fewer doctors or home health aides per capita than more urban ones. But their healthcare needs are often greater—particularly given their older populations and higher rates of disability. Foreign-born physicians, who are often more willing to relocate than native-born colleagues, are a valuable resource for these medically underserved areas.
|135: Number of U.S. counties lacking a single physician.|
|80 percent: Share of small, rural counties without a single psychiatrist.|
|14.5 percent: Share of physicians in small, rural counties educated abroad.|
|9,300: Number of doctors rural counties would gain if they recruited just 5 percent of the immigrant physicians working in the most urban areas.|
|Metro Areas||Nonmetro Areas|
|Share Adults Disabled||9.5%||14.4%|
|Share of Population Elderly||13.4%||17.3%|
|Large and Urban||Small and Rural|
|Practicing Physicians per 100K Residents||205||82|
|Practicing Psychiatrists per 100K Residents||8||0.5|
In many health occupations, from surgeons to home health aides, immigrants already make up a large share of active workers. As the U.S. population continues to age and as healthcare demands increase, immigrants are expected to play an increasingly important role in the health of the nation.
|Profession||Share of Foreign-Born Workers|
|Home Health Aides||38.1%|
|Personal Care Aides||25.5%|
|Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians||19.2%|
|Licensed Practical and Vocational Nurses||15.1%|
|Medical and Health Service Managers||13.7%|
|All Healthcare Workers||16.5%|
The 76.4 million baby boomers living in America represent a major challenge to our broader healthcare system. Baby boomers are expected to live longer than past generations, while also battling chronic, longstanding conditions. If caregivers remain scarce in some parts of the country, adult children could drop out of the labor force in large numbers to care for aging parents—a potential setback for the economy overall.
2 Wan He et al., “65+ in the United States: 2005,” Current Population Reports: Special Studies (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Aging and U.S. Census Bureau, December 2005). Available online.; Carrie A. Werner, “The Older Population: 2010,” 2010 Census Briefs, November 2011. Available online.
3 Keehan, Sean P, Helen C. Lazenby, Mark A. Zezza, and Aaron S. Catlin, “Age Estimates in the National Health Accounts,” Health Care Financing Review 2, no. 2 (2003). Web Exclusive.
4MetLife, “Caregiving Costs to Working Caregivers: Double Jeopardy for Baby Boomers Caring for Their Parents,” June 2011. Available online.
|76.4 million: Number of baby boomers in the United States.2|
|3x: How much more the average elderly patient spends on healthcare than the average working-age American.3|
|$300,000: Amount an adult over the age of 50 forgoes in wages and pensions when they leave the labor force early to provide eldercare.4|
|Year||Number of People||Share of Total Population|
As the share of the U.S. population over 65 continues to increase, demand for home health aides is expected to soar. But the U.S.-born workers who typically fill such jobs—working age women with less than a bachelor’s degree—is shrinking. Immigrants are already playing an outsized role as home health aides, and can help address our country’s growing needs for such workers in the future.
|48.5 percent: Projected growth in number of home health aide positions, 2012-2022.|
|-1.5%: Amount the native-born population that typically fills such roles is projected to shrink, 2012-2022.|
|24 percent: Share home health aides that were foreign-born, 2014.|
An estimated one in five Americans experiences a mental health issue each year, yet more than 40 percent never receive care.5 One reason why so many individuals go untreated and undiagnosed: The country’s large and growing shortage of mental health professionals, an issue that is particularly acute in America’s rural communities. While immigrants already play a large role in our psychiatry workforce, more could be done to leverage their training and skills.
5 Pamela S. Hyde and Paolo Del Vecchio, “Five Point Plan to Improve the Nation’s Mental Health,” Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, n.d. Available online.; Patrick W. Corrigan, Benjamin G. Druss, and Deborah A. Perlick, “The Impact of Mental Illness Stigma on Seeking and Participating in Mental Health Care,” Association for Psychological Science, August 1, 2014. Available online.
|56.5 percent: Share of U.S. counties without a single psychiatrist.|
|25.6 percent: Share of practicing psychiatrists older than age 65.|
|4,870: Number of additional psychiatrists needed by 2020 to meet the minimal federal guidelines of adequate care.|
|4.2 million: Cumulative lost or less productive workdays experienced by U.S. workers each month due to inadequate mental healthcare.|
|State||Est. Number of Days Per Month|
Despite the critical role immigrants play in the healthcare workforce, the U.S. immigration system makes it difficult for employers to recruit immigrants, even when no U.S.-born workers are available. Many foreign medical residents who study in the United States come on the J-1 visa, a visa that requires them to return home for at least two years after completing their training. One program, The Conrad 30 Waiver, allows states to waive this return requirement for foreign medical residents willing to take jobs in underserved areas. The program, however, is far too limited to meet current needs. Expanding the Conrad 30 program and exploring other fixes—like offering a dedicated temporary work visa to health workers—would go a long way towards addressing our healthcare labor force challenges. So would streamlining the relicensing process for some foreign-trained doctors already here.
6 José Ramón Fernández-Peña, Founder and Director of Welcome Back Initiative, August 2015.
|8,900: Medical residents and fellows sponsored for J-1 visas in 2013-2014.|
|30: Number of Conrad 30 Waivers granted to each state to recruit those physicians for jobs in underserved areas each year.|
|500: Registered nurses who came to the United States annually on the H-1C visa, which Congress allowed to expire in 2009.|
|5,000: Number of foreign-trained doctors living in the United States who have attempted to go through the long process of earning a new, U.S.-based license since 2001.6|
|136: Number of doctors who made it successfully into U.S. practice after going through that process.7|
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