Entrepreneurship and business creation is fundamental to a healthy economy. Companies less than five years old create an average of 1.5 million new jobs for Americans each year.† Immigrants in particular play an important role in creating jobs as they are more likely to start a new business than the rest of the population. Despite this, the United States lacks a startup visa to welcome immigrant entrepreneurs with a proven idea and solid investment. This results in many business owners struggling to stay—at a cost to our economy and its workers.
† Jason Wiens and Chris Jackson, “The Importance of Young Firms for Economic Growth,” September 13, 2015. Available online.
How many jobs do immigrant entrepreneurs create? The data shows that firms owned by immigrants provide millions of jobs for U.S. workers and generate billions of dollars in annual income. With new business formation slowing in the United States, immigrant entrepreneurs have a critical role in many parts of the country, creating jobs for all Americans.
|3.2 million: Number of immigrant entrepreneurs, 2019.|
|8.0 million: Number of people employed at immigrant-owned businesses, 2017.|
|$1.3 trillion: Total sales of immigrant-owned businesses, 2017.|
|50 percent: Rate at which the founding of new business by immigrants grew, 1996-2011.|
|-10 percent: Rate at which the founding of new business by the native-born declined during the same period.|
The act of moving to another country is inherently courageous and risky. So, it comes as no surprise that immigrants tend to be more entrepreneurial than the rest of the population. In 2019, immigrant entrepreneurs made up 21.7 percent of all business owners in the United States, despite making up just over 13.6 percent of the population and 17.1 percent of the U.S. labor force.
|State||Immigrant Share of Entrepreneurs||Immigrant Share of Total Population|
Foreign-born entrepreneurs and the jobs they created were instrumental in the recovery from the Great Recession. Between 2007 and 2011, immigrant entrepreneurs founded a large share of new businesses across the country and in several key states.
|28 percent: Share of all new small businesses started by immigrants in 2011.|
|2x: How much more likely the foreign-born were to start a new business in 2011 than the U.S.-born population.|
|1 in 10: Number of people employed at a privately owned U.S. company who worked at an immigrant-owned firm in 2010.|
As important as the frequency with which immigrants start businesses is the diversity of fields in which they start them. Immigrants start more than 25 percent of all businesses in seven of the eight sectors that the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics expects to grow the fastest over the next decade. They also play a large role in founding both Main Street businesses1 and high-tech firms.2
1 David Dyssegaard Kallick, “Bringing Vitality to Main Street: How Immigrant Small Businesses Help Local Economies Grow,” New York: Fiscal Policy Institute and Americas Society/Council of the Americas, 2015. Available online.
2 Vivek Wadhwa et al., “America’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Part I,” SSRN Scholarly Paper (Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, 2007). Available online.
|Healthcare and Social Assistance||28.7%|
|Professional Business Services||25.4%|
|Leisure and Hospitality||23.9%|
|Transportation and Utilities||29.4%|
|Share of Main Street Businesses Owned by Immigrant Entrepreneurs, 2015||28%|
|— Neighborhood Services||31%|
|— Accommodation and Food Services||36%|
|Share of High-tech Silicon Valley Firms Founded by Immigrant Entrepreneurs, 2006-2012||43.9%|
Looking at specific ethnic and national origin groups within the immigrant population, we find that many exhibit entrepreneurship rates higher than the native-born. At right we highlight the particular contributions of Middle Eastern business owners in Detroit, a group frequently credited with helping to spur the city’s recent economic comeback.
3 Steve Tobocman, “Guide to Immigrant Economic Development,” Welcoming America, accessed July 5, 2016. Available online.
4 New American Economy, "Reason for Reform: Entrepreneurship," October 2016. Available online.
|1 in 5: The share of jobs that left the state of Michigan from 1950 to the early 2000s.3|
|15,000: Businesses in Detroit owned by Middle Eastern immigrants.4|
|$36.4 billion: Annual economic impact of MENA immigrant owned firms.|
|Middle Eastern and North African Immigrants||19.1%|
|U.S. Workers Overall||9.5%|
Consistent with past NAE research, a significant number of firms on the most recent Fortune 500 list were founded by immigrants or their children. These companies make enormous contributions to both the U.S. and global economy. They also live on beyond their founders, generating jobs and revenue long after their visionaries retire or move on.
|44.2 percent: Share of 2020 Fortune 500 firms with at least one founder who either immigrated to the U.S. or who was the child of immigrants.|
|13.7 million: Number of people employed by these firms.|
|$6.3 trillion: Revenue generated by those firms, FY2019.|
Currently, there is no visa for those who want to come to the United States, start a company, and create jobs for U.S. workers. To access a visa, many immigrant entrepreneurs choose to sell a majority stake in their company and then apply for a visa as a high-skilled worker rather than as the owner of the firm. Our broken H-1B visa system, however, means that many entrepreneurs cannot get a visa before the cap is exhausted each year. In 2016, the White House proposed a rule that would make it easier for entrepreneurs to remain in the country, but it is clear a more permanent, legislative fix is needed.5
5 Issie Lapowski, “White House Proposes a New Immigration Rule for Entrepreneurs,” WIRED, accessed December 14, 2016. Available online.
6“USCIS Completes the H-1B Cap Random Selection Process for FY 2016,” USCIS, accessed December 14, 2016. Available online.
|85,000: Number of people working in private companies allowed to enter the United States on the H-1B visa per year.|
|233,000: Number of H-1B visa applications submitted in the first seven days of the application window in 2015.6|
|5: Number of days it took to reach the H-1B cap in 2015.|
Immigrant entrepreneurs are hardly a monolithic group. While much of the attention is focused on high-skilled foreign-born entrepreneurs that drive innovation in Silicon Valley, immigrant entrepreneurs with humbler backgrounds continue to play critical roles in the U.S. economy. Founding retail shops, restaurants, and personal service businesses, these immigrant entrepreneurs help towns and cities across the United States stay vibrant. In sum, the over 2.1 million immigrant entrepreneurs with less than a college degree have a significant economic impact, creating billions of dollars in economic activity and providing jobs to thousands of Americans.
|Sector||Number of Entrepreneurs|
|Services to buildings and dwellings||118,470|
|Restaurants and other food services||117,773|
|Total Number (all Industries)||2,104,597|
|Immigrants with at Least a BA||10.6%|
|Total Business Income||$43 billion|
|Share of U.S. Total||11%|
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